Questions and Answers
American History help plz.
Let's start with the second… Which groups did not benefit from the settlement of the west…
Their lands were taken by force. When their warriors rode out to protect their lands and people from the invaders, they were ruthlessly hunted down and killed. In celebrated fights, such as the Battle of Sand Creek and Battle of Wounded Knee, their women, children, babies and elderly were ridden down by U.S. Troops and killed. And, when Native Americans scored a victory, such as at Little Big Horn, it was reported as a massacre of the troops leading the invasion of their lands.
They were pushed back to the least desirable land. And, if something valuable was discovered on that land, such as gold in the Black Hills, they were even pushed out of that worthless agricultural land. Nomad hunters were forbidden to hunt and forced to grow crops on land that barely supported weeds. When they tried to exercise their rights under treaty or defend their remaining few lands, they were punished in United States courts and hanged. But, when settlers encroached on their treaty-defended land, Native Americans were expected to ignore the violations and sign new treaties that legalized the settler's violations of those treaties.
Their children were forced to tribal schools ran by the U.S. Department of the Interior. There, they were forbidden from using their family names or to speak their native tongues. They were forbidden to practice their culture. Their hair was cut to short lengths and they were denied the right to be Sioux, to be Navajo, to be Apache.
In short, Native Americans in the West were subjected to a physical and cultural war of genocide. Native Americans lost everything and I can't think of one single benefit they gained from the expansion west.
Who gained? Settlers.
To be more specific:
Railroad barons… They controlled the most efficient and fastest means of transportation from California in the west to New York and Boston in the east. Families like the Vanderbilts made millions from their control of the rails and their sales of lands adjacent to the tracks.
Cattle ranchers… Cattle ranchers were able to take advantage of large tracts of land throughout the West and create virtual empires.
Mine companies… And not just gold miners in Black Hills or California. The West had abundant deposits of silver, copper, uranium and dozens of other valuable metals. Large companies were organized to get these minerals out of the ground. And, while there is the myth of the individual prospector making his fortune panning for gold, this was rare. Most of the gold was removed by large mining operations.
Farmers… Particularly in Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska. After being taken from Native Americans, there were large tracts of land on the Plains available for farming. These tracts were sold cheaply by the government, allowing families to move East Coast cities to opportunity in the West. While they may not have benefited as much as the mine owners, the cattle ranchers or railroad barons, the fact that there was cheap land in the West allowed a number of regular citizens to benefit from the westward expansion.
Merchants and manufacturers… Someone had to supply the move West. Levi Strauss, for instance, came out with a new way to rivet blue jeans and make them durable for work. There was Sears, Roebuck and Co, Woolworths and a number of other nation stores. One of the reasons individual prospectors didn't make it was because of prices charged by the merchants supplying them. The price merchants charged reflected the value of the gold being brought in. And merchants in railheads, such as Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago made a pretty good living from the shipping of meat.
We have many recycled elements in our house – the bricks are one of them. We were informed that they were handmade & used to be in a factory in Brunswick area. They are solid red, with black elements, slightly thinner than a standard brick & look handmade. They have 'South Yarra' stamped into them. They seem old and I'd like to know more – does anyone know a resource or the history of the South Yarra Brickworks??
South Yarra is a residential suburb extending from St. Kilda Road to Williams Road, Toorak, bordered on the north by the Domain, the Botanic Gardens and the Yarra River, and on the south by Commercial Road, Prahran. Its prestige as a residential address approaches that of Toorak. Its railway station, 3 km. From Melbourne, is about in the middle of South Yarra. The western part of South Yarra is in Melbourne city and the other in Stonnington (previously Prahran) city. That has been a cause for the western part wanting to secede from Melbourne at various times.
South Yarra was the location of the first of three Crown land sales for Prahran, the subdivisions beginning south of the Yarra river in 1840s and ending at Dandenong Road ten years later. A purchaser in 1840 was Lieut.-Colonel Charles Forrest. He built two residences on Forrest Hill, the most northerly becoming the site of the Melbourne Boys' High School. Local clay supplied the bricks, and later became the site of the South Yarra brickworks. West of Punt Road in 1846 the former Norfolk Island Commandant Lieut.-Colonel Joseph Anderson acquired the choice site of the South Yarra Hill which overlooked the St. Kilda Road track which straggled through lower-lying sandy and swampy terrain. Anderson Street is named after him. Access to South Yarra was by boat or punt – hence Punt Road – until Princes Bridge was opened in 1850.
Shortly before the 1846 land sale the site for the Botanic Gardens was reserved. The western part of South Yarra thereby achieved the dual advantages of elevation and a first-class pleasure ground. The erection of the new Government House in part of the reservation in 1879 added to South Yarra's desirability.
A good many original homes of South Yarra west (c.1860-1900) survive, although some have been removed for the building of flats. The sites were smaller than those in Toorak and less prone to subdivision of the grounds or internal subdivision of the houses into flats.
In addition to the Botanic Gardens there is Fawkner Park, reserved in 1862 but abbreviated by the development of the strip fronting St. Kilda Road. The allotments, however, were large, attracting correspondingly large residences to take advantage of the St. Kilda Road boulevard. In the postwar years they became the site of the southway extension of the central business area.
The major institutional buildings are the primary school (1877) on the site of a Presbyterian church school (1854), Christ Church at the prominent corner of Punt and Toorak Roads (1857), and Melbourne Grammar School (1858) on a site chosen in 1854 when the school at St. Peter's Hill, East Melbourne, looked to its future.
A small shopping centre is served by the tram as it rounds the corner at Domain Road and Park Street.
-South Yarra east of Punt Road was connected to Melbourne by railway in 1859, and joined to Caulfield and Gippsland in 1879. The two commercial spines are Chapel Street and Toorak Road, and their intersection had business premises by the mid 1850s. In 1880 a cable tram engine house was built at the corner, later to become the Capitol Bakeries building (1928) and then a retail and entertainment venue (1988).
The northern part of South Yarra was favoured by elevation and larger residential allotments. The southern part approached the swampy part of Prahran and had workers' houses. In 1893 The Australian Handbook described South Yarra as –
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